There are two different ways to mitigate floods: -
o Structural o Non- Structural
Structural measures are in the nature of physical measures and help in “modifying the floods”, while non- structural measures are in the nature of planning and help in “modifying the losses due to floods”. In the structural measures we keep the water away from people and in the non-structural measures to try to keep the people away from water. All of these works can be individually divided into long term and short-term measures.
a) Water Shed Management: Timely cleaning, de-silting and deepening of natural water reservoir and drainage channels (both urban and rural) must be taken up.
b) Reservoirs: The entire natural water storage place should be cleaned on a regular basis. Encroachments on tanks and ponds or natural drainage channel share to be removed well before the onset of monsoon.
c) Natural water retention Basins: Construction and protection of all the flood protection embankments, ring bunds and other bunds. Dams and levees can also be constructed which can be used as temporarily storing space which reduced the chances of lower plains getting flooded.
d) Buildings on elevated area: The buildings in flood prone areas should be constructed on an elevated area and if necessary on stilts and platform.
Non Structural Measures:
a) Flood Plain Zoning: Flood plain zoning, which places restrictions on the use of land on flood plains, can reduce the cost of flood damage.Local governments may pass laws that prevent uncontrolled building or development on flood plains to limit flood risks and to protect nearby property. Landowners in areas that adopt local ordinances or laws to limit development on flood plains can purchase flood insurance to help cover the cost of damage from floods. Buildings on stilts or on a platform Pedestal Construction in a flood prone area.
b) Flood Forecasting and warning:
These are issued for different areas mostly by the Central water Commission/ Meteorological department and by the State Irrigation/ Flood Department.