There are number of causes why biological weapons are potentially more powerful agents to mass casualties leading to civil disruptions. To attract widespread attention and to harm a selected target, these outfits can utilize possibly any biological material, which fulfils some of the criteria of bio-weapons.
·Biological agents can be disseminated with readily available technology. Common agricultural spray devices can be adopted to disseminate biological pathogens of the proper particle size to cause infection in human population over great distances.
· The perpetrators can use natural weather conditions, such as wind and temperature inversions as well as existing building infrastructures (e.g. ventilation system) or air movement related to transportation (e.g. subway cars passing through tunnels) to disseminate these agents and thus to infect or intoxicate a large number of people.
· The expense of producing biological weapons is far less than that of other weapon systems.
The methods of bio-logical agent dissemination and delivery techniques include:
· Aerosols - biological agents are dispersed into the air, forming a fine mist that may drift for miles. Inhaling the agent may cause epidemic diseases in human beings or animals.
· Animals – some diseases are spread by insects and animals, such as fleas, mice, flies, mosquitoes, and livestock.
· Food and water contamination - some pathogenic organisms and toxins may persist in food and water supplies. Most microbes can be killed, and toxins deactivated, by cooking food and boiling water. Most microbes are killed by boiling water for one minute, but some require longer. Follow official instructions.
· Person-to-person - spread of a few infectious agents is also possible. Humans have been the source of infection for smallpox, plague, and the Lassa viruses.